Ingredient: Rose

“Queen of flowers”

INCI: Rosa damascene, Rosa centifolia


Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Rosa damascene, Rosa centifolia

Description of oil aroma: Same as the flower

Rose is the supreme oil of the heart chakra and brings healing and helps it open after grief has closed it. When it is open, rose strengthens its energy, enabling love to radiate out. Rose also has an equal affinity with the sacral chakra.


Rosa centifolia, also known as the Provence rose, cabbage rose and Rose de Mai, is a hybrid flower developed by Dutch rose growers between 17th and 19th century. While they were grown from Rosa damascene, further hereditary history is unclear and not well documented. They are shrubs growing up to 2 meters tall, with long drooping canes and greyed-green pinnate leaves with 5-7 leaflets. The flowers are round and globular, with numerous overlapping petals that are highly scented. While they are usually pink, they have also been known to be white and dark red. It has been found growing wild in the forests of the Caucasus, and is cultivated in Turkey, Morocco and Tunis.

Rosa damascena is also known as the Damask rose and the Rose of Castile. It is also a hybrid, grown from Rosa gallica and Rosa moschata. Rosa fedtshenkoana is also associated with the Damask rose. They grow up to 2.2 meters tall and have dense, stout, curved prickles along the stems. The leaves are pinnate with five (sometimes seven) leaflets. The small double flowers are light to moderate pink and usually grow in groups. Damask rose was used by the early Arab perfume makers, who introduced it to Europe. It is cultivated on a large scale in Bulgaria and Turkey, and in smaller amounts in Russia, India and Iran.

There are over 10,000 hybrids of rose that have been created from 250 different species. Only three are commonly distilled for their perfume, however. The flowers of these roses, as well as Rosa gallica (French rose) are well known for their fine fragrance and are harvested for their oil, which is known as rose otto, or rose absolute. It requires approximately 120 lbs of roses to make 1 oz of oil, so solvent extraction is significantly cheaper and used most often in the perfume industry. Roses have been recorded in fossil records dating back to 32 millions years. The rose was dubbed “queen of the flowers” by the Greek poet Sappho. Rosa is derived from the Greek work “rodon”, meaning “red”. In ancient times, roses symbolized confidence and roses would be hung over tables during meetings to show that everything said would be held in strictest confidence. This is where the term “sub rosa” originated from.

It is also used in perfumery to make rose water. In ancient Persia, rose water was regarded as a panacea. Roses were also used to sooth the pain of fever blisters and cold sores, and until the Middle Ages they were a chief cure for headaches, menstrual difficulties, nervous tension, skin disorders, digestive disorders and eye infections. Many foods were flavored with roses in Elizabethan England, and continues for that use to this day. According to Gattefosse, rose has astringent, cleansing, stomachic properties and can be used against vomiting, diarrhea and bleeding. Jeanne Rose raves about the farnesol found in rose and that the bacteriostatic properties are attracted to the skin and are good for mucous membranes. She suggests rose oil be used for deodorant products.

Rose absolute is obtained through enfleurage and solvent extraction to produce a reddish-orange oil. It has a deep, rich, rosy-spicy, honeylike aroma. Rose otto is obtained through steam distillation and is pale yellow and congeals at 15°C. It has a deep sweet rosy-floral aroma, and is preferred for aromatherapy.

**Must be diluted prior to administering topically**
When “max use on skin” is listed, please do not use more than this amount. “Maximum cosmetic use” generally refers to facial applications and sensitive areas. If no maximum topical use indication is listed, follow the general dilution guide in the safety pamphlet provided by clicking here.

Constituents: citronellyl acetate, geranyl acetate, neryl acetate, rose oxide, neral, searoptene, camphene, mycrene, cymene, pinenes, ocimene, damascenone, citronellol, geraniol, farnesol, nerol, linalool, phenylethyl, alcholo, caryophyllene, methyl eugenol

Contraindications: Non-toxic, non-irritating, non-sensitizing. Avoid in the 1st trimester of pregnancy. Maximum use in cosmetic creams is 0.01% and perfumes is 0.2%. Maximum dermal for Damask rose oil use is 0.6%. Maximum dermal use for cabbage rose absolute is 2.5%. Both are generally regarded as safe.

Max cosmetic use: 0.01%
Max Topical use (Damask): 0.6%
Max Topical use (Cabbage): 2.5%



Essential Oil Composition of Rosa damascena Mill Cultivated in Central Iran

Effect of Rosa damascene aromatherapy on sleep quality in cardiac patients: A randomized controlled trial

Laxative Effects of Rosa damascene Mill in Dogs

In vitro antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects of herbs against Propionibacterium acnes

Efficacy of modified distillation sludge of rose (Rosa centifolia) petals for lead(II) and zinc(II) removal from aqueous solutions


The information provided is for educational purposes only. It is not intended to test, treat or diagnose health problems or diseases. This information is not meant to be a substitute for the advice provided by your own physician or other medical professional.

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